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The present Tense Definition Structure and Examples

The present continuous Tense structure and examples 

Applications: The present continuous is used:
1. To denote an action that is going on/happening at the present moment (NOW).
We use the present continuous to denote the actions of hot and instant nature, we mean to say that somebody is in the middle of doing something.

2. To denote an action/habits that are temporary, for example; 
My Sister gets up at 7:00, However, she is getting up at 5:00 these days for her exams.

3. To denote repeated actions going on over some time at present, for example;

Nowadays, we are constructing a new house at home.

"What are you doing ?

" We are learning the tenses''

4. To denote changes, developments taking place around, For example;

The prices of Mobile Phones is increasing day by day.

Our English is improving gradually.

Present continuous tense

Structure of Present Continuous Tense

Rule 1: Use the present participle ''V4'' form verb.
Rule 2: Use aux. ''am,/amn't'' before the Principal verb if the subject is FIRST-PERSON SINGULAR (I).
Rule 3: Use aux. "is/isn't'' with THIRD-PERSON SINGULAR main verb/Principle Verb (it,she,he)
Rule 4: Use aux. ''are/aren't'' before the Principal Verb with the rest of the subjects.

Examples of The Present Continuous Tense

  1. " Don't disturb me, I am studying.
  2. It is getting dark. Shall I turn on the light?
  3. I am looking for Christine. Have you seen her?
  4. They have demolished their house. So, they are Staying with their neighbors at present.
  5. "Are you coming Ann ?"
  6. "Yes, I am coming just now.''
  7. "Have you got an Umbrella? It is raining very hard"
  8. You are making a lot of noise. Could you be quieter for a while? I am trying to concentrate.
  9. Why are all these people here? What is happening?
  10. Why are you looking at me like that? What is the matter?
  11. "Thank God! my English is improving slowly but steadily.''

The present Perfect Structure and Examples

Applications: The present perfect is used to;
1. To denote an action that has recently/just now taken place.
Example; Look at Tom! He is leaping with joy. He has passed his 10th in distinction''
''Oh! The room is looking beautiful. They have painted it.''
" Raju, come fast. The class has begun.''
"Mother, there is no milk in the jug. The cat has drunk it.''
Note: In PRESENT PERFECT TENSE, the action is always connected with the present moment. The action is in past but it has a result now.
" Look at Jim. He is jumping with joy (the result of the action) He has passed his 12th with distinction.''
2. To denote an action that has ever taken place in one's life (one's life experience).
Examples
"Jon, let's go and watch the film''
''No, thanks! I have seen it many times''
3. To give information or to announce recent happenings.
Examples;
" Let's leave now. There has been a hartal.''
"Ooh! I have cut my finger''
Note: We use the following three adverbs very often with the present perfect tense.
  • Just.
  • Already.
  • Yet.
Examples;
''Let's greet the guests. They have just come out of the car"
"Tariq, don't forget to get the newspaper."
"Papa, I have already brought it."

The present perfect structure

Rule 1: Use the past participle (V3) form of the verb.
Rule 2: Use "have/haven't before the verb (V3) with all the subjects except the THIRD PERSON SINGULAR (He, She, It).
Rule 4: Use aux. has/hasn't before the verb (V3) with the THIRD PERSON SINGULAR ( he, she, it).

Examples of Present Perfect Tense

  1. Mona is looking for her cell phone. She has lost her cell phone.
  2. My friend can not walk as his leg is in plaster. He has broken it.
  3. "Do you know where Julia is ?''  - ''No I have not seen her since morning."
  4. Tim did not have a beard last month. Now he has a beard. He has grown a long beard. 
  5. " What time is the teacher leaving?'' - He is not here. He has already left for home."
  6. "Are your friends arrived here yet?" -" "Yes, they have just arrived by Train."

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense Examples & Structure

Applications: The present perfect tense is used;
1. To denote an action that began in the past and is still going on or has just stopped.
Examples;
a. This is my school. I study here in 11th class. I have been studying here since 2017.
b. I wish the bus comes soon, we have been waiting for the bus since morning.

The present perfect continuous structure 

Rule 1: Use the present participle (V4......ing) form of the verb.
Rule 2: Use aux. ''have/have not + been before the Principle verb (V4) with all the subjects except the third Person Singular.
Rule 3: Use aux. has (not) been before the Principle verb (V4) with Third Person Singular.
Note: While using present perfect continuous, the action is often linked to a past time. This past time can be a point of time or a period of time.''
  • We use "SINCE" with a point of time, for exampe;
Since 8:00 O clock, Since morning, Since Monday,  Since 15th April, Since 2017, Since Eid.
  • We use "FOR" with a period of time, for example;
 For 10 minutes, For 1 year, For some time, For the past 3 days, For a long time.

The present perfect continuous Examples 

1. I am still waiting for my friend. I have been waiting for him since 2:00 PM.
2. Jane started English classes in December. She is still learning English. She has been learning English for the last 7 months.
3. My grandmother is alright now. I have not been taking her to any Hospital for the past 1 month.
4. "You are looking extremely tired what have you been doing since morning?"

Read The Verb and its conjugation + The present simple tense click here